Forceps are instruments that are used to pull the baby out of the birth canal. For most models, one end is curved to wrap around the baby’s head and connects at the base like a pair of scissors. Some forceps are designed for general practitioners to avoid being placed too far inside the mother’s body. The ends of the forceps touch the tip of the baby’s cheek, which can cause facial nerve palsy if the doctor applies too much force.
In the hands of a competent obstetrician, delivery by forceps can be quick, painless and safe. Sometimes, forceps are necessary in the event of difficult or emergency deliveries. Improperly used, however, they can cause significant permanent injuries to mother and child. Forceps birth injuries are somewhat less common than those caused by vacuum extractors simply because physicians today are less likely to use forceps in an instrument-assisted birth. Still, birth injuries result from the negligent use of both instruments.
Contact the Ohio forceps birth injury lawyers at The Becker Law Firm if your child suffered serious injuries as a result of negligent forceps use. Call (440) 252-4399 for a free consultation.
How Do Forceps Work?
Forceps are sometimes used when the baby is in distress or when the mother is having difficulty delivering the baby, like a breech position or prolonged labor. The obstetrician must use the forceps carefully to help guide the baby through the pelvis. In order to safely use forceps, the mother must be fully dilated and membranes must be ruptured. Forceps are not appropriate with cephalopelvic disproportion, where the baby’s head is too large to pass through the mother’s pelvis.
Forceps Delivery Risks Injuries
Injuries caused by improper use of forceps include:
- Bruising or lacerations to the baby’s head
- Bruising or lacerations to the cervix or vagina
- Facial nerve palsy
- Skull fracture
- Brain damage
- Intracranial hemorrhage
- Developmental delays
- Cerebral palsy
- Brachial plexus injuries
Forceps Use vs. Vacuum Extraction
The choice between forceps and vacuum is hotly debated in the obstetrical community. Many studies show that they have equal rates of injuries generally. However, a vacuum likely has a higher rate of cephalohematoma and shoulder dystocia, while forceps use leads to a higher rate of facial nerve palsies and injuries to the mother. The most important factor is operator experience and comfort level.